Where ever you live in the world you should apply the information on working your bees that is given below when the weather conditions in your area are right. So take notes and be ready.

*****Check out the new easy to use book link above*****

Cletus Notes

Hello Everyone,

February is a busy month here at Lone Star Farms in Bryan, Texas. This is the month that I put together all that equipment I ordered last month. It is time consuming to put together several boxes, frames, tops and bottoms. Then, when you finish all that, you still have to get the equipment painted.

By working with that good plan I made in January, I am able to have all the parts I need to complete my February work load. I don’t have to re-order anything which would only slow the process down.

I believe in keeping my bee yard in good order, so February is a good time to perform that task. I make sure that all the hives are sitting level on their stands, and that the grass and bushes are cut away from the hives. I like to have plenty of work space around each hive. The bees will need unobstructed access into their hive entrance when the nectar sources become available to them.

February is a good time to inspect all of my feeders to make sure they are clean, in good working order, and ready to go, in case they are needed when I perform my first hive inspection around the first of March.

The start of the bee season will be exploding here in Texas by the first of March, and if you have a passion for beekeeping like I do even after 50 years, you know how hard it is to contain your excitement.

Love and enjoy your bees.

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Flowers Use Physics to Attract Pollinators

Science News Room
Wiley.com


A new review indicates that flowers may be able to manipulate the laws of physics,
by playing with light, using mechanical tricks, and harnessing electrostatic
forces to attract pollinators. Credit: New Phytologist

A new review indicates that flowers may be able to manipulate the laws of physics, by playing with light, using mechanical tricks, and harnessing electrostatic forces to attract pollinators.

The New Phytologistreview describes the latest advances in our understanding of how plants use their flowers to ensure reproductive success. Flowers use light to attract pollinators by creating color using microscopic structures or chemical effects. Using gravity to their advantage, petals cause pollinators to slip or grip when they land on a flower, ensuring that they transfer pollen without taking too much of the sugary nectar reward. Plants may even alter their electrical fields to influence pollinator visits.

"It is surprising to many people that plants use the laws of physics to their advantage in attracting pollinators, but of course it makes sense that evolution has used all the available opportunities to enhance plant fitness," said Dr. Beverley Glover, co-author of the review.

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Experimental Insecticide Explodes Mosquitoes, not Honey Bees

Vanderbilt University Medical Center

Vanderbilt scientists are part of a multi-institutional team studying an
experimental molecule that inhibits kidney function in mosquitoes.
Credit: Photo by James Gathany/CDC

In a new study, Vanderbilt pharmacologist Jerod Denton, Ph.D., Ohio State entomologist Peter Piermarini, Ph.D., and colleagues report an experimental molecule that inhibits kidney function in mosquitoes and thus might provide a new way to control the deadliest animal on Earth.

The investigators aim their inhibitor, named VU041, at the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, the leading vector for malaria, and Aedes aegypti, a mosquito that transmits Zika virus and other pathogens. The study appears in the journal Scientific Reports.

Over several decades of exposure, mosquitoes have evolved genetic resistance to various insecticides that attack their nervous system. The new study shows for the first time that inducing kidney failure -- or, more correctly, Malpighian tubule failure -- in mosquitoes can circumvent resistance to conventional insecticides.

"We're essentially preventing mosquitoes from producing urine after they take a blood meal," said Denton, associate professor of Anesthesiology and Pharmacology.

According to Denton, in taking a blood meal mosquitoes can double or even triple their body weight.

Besides providing nutrients, blood meals carry toxic salts; the potassium chloride lurking in red blood cells, if not quickly voided, can depolarize cell membrane potentials and kill straightaway.

"So they've evolved a rapid diuretic process to very quickly separate the salt water from all the nutrients that they need for egg development. A lot of people don't realize that mosquitoes have kidneys, and when they take a blood meal from you they also urinate on you almost simultaneously.

"What our compounds do is stop urine production, so they swell up and can't volume regulate, and in some cases they just pop," he said.

Conventional mosquitocides cause death of males and females at all stages of mosquito development, and in doing so exert considerable selective pressure for the development of genetic resistance.

"By targeting blood feeding female mosquitoes, we predict that there will be less selective pressure for the emergence of resistant mutations," Denton said.

The investigators show VU041 to be effective when applied topically, which indicates that it potentially could be adapted as a sprayed insecticide. They also show that it doesn't harm honey bees.

Arrangements are underway to test VU041 in a spray formulation. If that's successful, additional safety testing would be needed before deciding about commercial development, Denton said.