If you are a member and have anything that you feel is important to chemical free beekeeping, please email it to me. I will post it in this section in a future issue. Thank you. Dennis

Finally March has arrived. My bee season here in the Bryan, Texas area has officially begun. The only person happier about the start of bee season than me is my wife. I usually drive her crazy in the off season when I can’t work my bees. 

It is time for most of us in the Southern region of the states to begin popping tops and performing the first inspection of the year. Make sure the bees made it though the winter months. Check for a laying queen, food stores, population of bees, damaged wooden ware/combs and diseases. Remove any dead hives. Try to figure out why they died. You don’t want to reuse equipment that has disease in it. Feed any hive that is short on food. A 2 part sugar to 1 part water mix will work fine. 

Prepare swarm catching boxes now so they will be on hand. The yaupon flow will begin in 4 or 5 weeks in or area so all necessary equipment will need to be ready and waiting. I can now remove my current “Honey Do” list from the refrigerator door pack it in moth ball crystals and store it away until next winter. Hooray! My bee season has finally begun.  



Go to the ant thou sluggard. Go to the bee, and learn how diligent she is. What a noble work she produces, whose labour kings and private men use for their health! She is desired and honoured by all, and though weak in strength, yet since she values wisdom she prevails.” (Proverbs)

Samson’s wedding feast riddle concerned bees that had made a nest in the rib-cage of a lion: “ ... out of the strong came forth sweetness.” A well-known brand of golden syrup has an illustration of this on the container!

Christian tradition contains numerous legends involving bees. According to legend, the bee was blessed on leaving the Garden of Eden with the title “the handmaid of the Lord”. In another story, Christ made bees and the Devil, trying to compete, made wasps. In a French legend, the drops of water falling from the hands of Christ, washing in the River Jordan, became bees - Christ ordered them to stay and work for mankind. A Breton legend tells of the tears of the crucified Christ turning into bees and flying away to bring sweetness into the world. A Polish story tells how Jesus took the maggots from a wound in St. Paul’s head, put them in a tree and they became bees.

The Christian Church has strong links with bees. Monasteries kept bees to provide honey for sweetening and mead made from fermented honey - wax was in great demand for candles. Honey and mead were used to make herbal remedies more palatable! Brother Adam of Buckfast Abbey is well-known today.

The saints are well represented. St. Gregory is responsible for opening the flowers on 12th March - a few weeks later on 21st March, St. Benedict summons the bees to search for nectar. St. Ambrose, 4th Bishop of Milan, is the patron saint of beekeepers. In the Ukraine, the patron saint of beekeepers is St. Sossima, who brought bees from Egypt. According to legend, St. Bartholomew was martyred by being flayed alive and because of this fate he became the patron saint of tanners. In many parts of Britain, the apostle was also patron saint of beekeepers, probably because his feast day, 24th August, coincided with the gathering of the honey crop. Indeed, until the 1950s, the village of Gulval in Cornwall celebrated St. Bartholomew’s Day with a ceremony for Blessing the Mead, while the annual St. Bartholomew’s Fair in London was famous for its honey-coated apples. St. Dominic started beekeeping in Wales and, when he returned to Ireland, gave his hives to St. David - the bees followed him to Ireland! Another Irish saint St. Gobnat changed a colony of bees into an army to drive away a local marauding chieftain.

Bees were believed to be the souls of the dead returning to earth or on their way to the next world. This probably led to the widespread custom of “telling the bees” when the owner died. If the bees were not asked to stay with their new master or mistress, it was believed that they would die or abscond.

“Childhood, people say, is the time when nobody dies. Something went from mine the day I saw Uncle Sam at the hives and heard him say, ‘Bees, your master’s dead. I am your master now’. With that he knocked on each hive, and from within came a stir and commotion. ‘They know’, said my uncle, and we went indoors to send for the relations and find some strips of mourning for the hives.” (Bees are People by Ada Jackson - The Countryman - Autumn 1967)

Dark Honey Has more Illness-Fighting Agents Than Light Honey 

In a study that analyzed 19 samples of honey from 14 different floral sources, Universityof Illinoisscientists found that honey made from nectar collected from Illinoisbuckwheat flowers packs 20 times the antioxidant punch as that produced by bees that lap up Californiasage. Clover, perhaps the most common plant source tapped by honey bees, scored in the middle of the rankings.

Antioxidants ­ substances that slow the oxidation of other substances ­ counter the toxic effects of free radicals, which can cause DNA damage that can lead to age-related problems such as arthritis, strokes and cancer. Free radicals are atoms or molecules that are usually reactive or unstable.

In an article to be published in the Journal of Apicultural Research, the researchers say darker honey has less water and more antioxidants than light-colored honey.

The co-authors of the study ­ funded by the Illinois Value-Added Research Program and National Honey Board ­ were May Berenbaum, head of the University of Illinois entomology department; Gene E. Robinson, director of the U. of I. bee research facility; and plant biology graduate student Steven M. Frankel.

"Not all honeys are the same," said Berenbaum, who also is a researcher in the U.of I. Functional Foodsfor Health program. "The antioxidant content of buckwheat honey compares favorably, pretty much bite for bite, with the ascorbic acid-related antioxidant content of tomatoes. Gram for gram, antioxidants in buckwheat honey equal that of fruits and vegetables such as sweet corn or tomatoes. It packs the antioxidant power of Vitamin C in a tomato, but most people who would be willing to eat an entire tomato would balk at eating the equivalent of a tomato's weight-worth of honey."

Honey could be a supplemental source for antioxidants, the researchers concluded, noting that many fruits and vegetables often include other desirable sources for antioxidants. Although honey can't replace fruits and vegetables in the diet as a source of antioxidants, it has a lot to offer as a replacement for table sugar, which has little value other than as a sweetener, Berenbaum said.

Depending on the floral source, honey varies widely in color, water composition and sugar, ash, nitrogen and metal content. The U.of I.researchers gathered and analyzed honeys produced in 1994 and 1995.

The findings could impact the beekeeping industry, which has been growing nationwide, mostly as a hobby, Robinson said. "Bees are essential for pollinating many of the crops that we grow for food and fiber. The estimated value of bee pollination in Americaalone is $10 billion per year," he said. "Now, honey may also take on extra importance as there may be health issues to add to the equation. Not all nectars are created equal, thus not all honeys are created equal."

The following article reveals the devastating and unprecedented

> impact that Monsanto's Roundup herbicide is having on the health of

> our soil, plants, animals, and human population. On top of this

> perfect storm, the USDA now wants to approve Roundup Ready alfalfa,

> which will exacerbate this calamity. Please tell USDA Secretary

> Vilsack not to approve Monsanto's alfalfa by using the sample

> letter on our website here.


>  by Jeffrey M. Smith

> Monsanto's Roundup Triggers Over 40 Plant Diseases and Endangers

> Human and Animal Health


> While visiting a seed corn dealer's demonstration plots in Iowa

> last fall, Dr. Don Huber walked passed a soybean field and noticed

> a distinct line separating severely diseased yellowing soybeans on

> the right from healthy green plants on the left (see photo). The

> yellow section was suffering from Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS), a

> serious plant disease that ravaged the Midwest in 2009 and '10,

> driving down yields and profits. Something had caused that area of

> soybeans to be highly susceptible and Don had a good idea what it was.


> The diseased field on the right had glyphosate applied the previous

> season. Photo by Don Huber

> Don Huber spent 35 years as a plant pathologist at Purdue

> University and knows a lot about what causes green plants to turn

> yellow and die prematurely. He asked the seed dealer why the SDS

> was so severe in the one area of the field and not the other. "Did

> you plant something there last year that wasn't planted in the rest

> of the field?" he asked. Sure enough, precisely where the severe

> SDS was, the dealer had grown alfalfa, which he later killed off at

> the end of the season by spraying a glyphosate-based herbicide

> (such as Roundup). The healthy part of the field, on the other

> hand, had been planted to sweet corn and hadn't received glyphosate.


> This was yet another confirmation that Roundup was triggering SDS.

> In many fields, the evidence is even more obvious. The disease was

> most severe at the ends of rows where the herbicide applicator

> looped back to make another pass (see photo). That's where extra

> Roundup was applied.


> Don's a scientist; it takes more than a few photos for him to draw

> conclusions. But Don's got more-lots more. For over 20 years, Don

> studied Roundup's active ingredient glyphosate. He's one of the

> world's experts. And he can rattle off study after study that

> eliminate any doubt that glyphosate is contributing not only to the

> huge increase in SDS, but to the outbreak of numerous other

> diseases. (See selected reading list.)


> Sudden Death Syndrome is more severe at the ends of rows, where

> Roundup dose is strongest. Photo by Amy Bandy.

> Roundup: The perfect storm for plant disease


> More than 30% of all herbicides sprayed anywhere contain glyphosate-

> the world's bestselling weed killer. It was patented by Monsanto

> for use in their Roundup brand, which became more popular when they

> introduced "Roundup Ready" crops starting in 1996. These

> genetically modified (GM) plants, which now include soy, corn,

> cotton, canola, and sugar beets, have inserted genetic material

> from viruses and bacteria that allows the crops to withstand

> applications of normally deadly Roundup.


> (Monsanto requires farmers who buy Roundup Ready seeds to only use

> the company's Roundup brand of glyphosate. This has extended the

> company's grip on the glyphosate market, even after its patent

> expired in 2000.)


> The herbicide doesn't destroy plants directly. It rather cooks up a

> unique perfect storm of conditions that revs up disease-causing

> organisms in the soil, and at the same time wipes out plant

> defenses against those diseases. The mechanisms are well-documented

> but rarely cited.


> The glyphosate molecule grabs vital nutrients and doesn't let them

> go. This process is called chelation and was actually the original

> property for which glyphosate was patented in 1964. It was only 10

> years later that it was patented as an herbicide. When applied to

> crops, it deprives them of vital minerals necessary for healthy

> plant function-especially for resisting serious soilborne diseases.

> The importance of minerals for protecting against disease is well

> established. In fact, mineral availability was the single most

> important measurement used by several famous plant breeders to

> identify disease-resistant varieties.

> Glyphosate annihilates beneficial soil organisms, such as

> Pseudomonas and Bacillus bacteria that live around the roots. Since

> they facilitate the uptake of plant nutrients and suppress disease-

> causing organisms, their untimely deaths means the plant gets even

> weaker and the pathogens even stronger.

> The herbicide can interfere with photosynthesis, reduce water use

> efficiency, lower lignin , damage and shorten root systems, cause

> plants to release important sugars, and change soil pH-all of which

> can negatively affect crop health.

> Glyphosate itself is slightly toxic to plants. It also breaks down

> slowly in soil to form another chemical called AMPA

> (aminomethylphosphonic acid) which is also toxic. But even the

> combined toxic effects of glyphosate and AMPA are not sufficient on

> their own to kill plants. It has been demonstrated numerous times

> since 1984


> Glyphosate with sterile soil (A) only stunts plant growth. In

> normal soil (B), pathogens kill the plant. Control (C) shows normal

> growth.

> that when glyphosate is applied in sterile soil, the plant may be

> slightly stunted, but it isn't killed (see photo).


> The actual plant assassins, according to Purdue weed scientists and

> others, are severe disease-causing organisms present in almost all

> soils. Glyphosate dramatically promotes these, which in turn

> overrun the weakened crops with deadly infections.

> "This is the herbicidal mode of action of glyphosate," says Don.

> "It increases susceptibility to disease, suppresses natural disease

> controls such as beneficial organisms, and promotes virulence of

> soilborne pathogens at the same time." In fact, he points out that

> "If you apply certain fungicides to weeds, it destroys the

> herbicidal activity of glyphosate!"


> By weakening plants and promoting disease, glyphosate opens the

> door for lots of problems in the field. According to Don, "There

> are more than 40 diseases of crop plants that are reported to

> increase with the use of glyphosate, and that number keeps growing

> as people recognize the association between glyphosate and disease."


> Roundup promotes human and animal toxins


> Photo by Robert Kremer

> Some of the fungi promoted by glyphosate produce dangerous toxins

> that can end up in food and feed. Sudden Death Syndrome, for

> example, is caused by the Fusarium fungus. USDA scientist Robert

> Kremer found a 500% increase in Fusarium root infection of Roundup

> Ready soybeans when glyphosate is applied (see photos and chart).

> Corn, wheat, and many other plants can also suffer from serious

> Fusarium-based diseases.


> But Fusarium's wrath is not limited to plants. According to a

> report by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, toxins from

> Fusarium on various types of food crops have been associated with

> disease outbreaks throughout history. They've "been linked to the

> plague epidemics" of medieval Europe, "large-scale human toxicosis

> in Eastern Europe," oesophageal cancer in southern Africa and parts

> of China, joint diseases in Asia and southern Africa, and a blood

> disorder in Russia. Fusarium toxins have also been shown to cause

> animal diseases and induce infertility.


> As Roundup use rises, plant disease skyrockets


> When Roundup Ready crops were introduced in 1996, Monsanto boldly

> claimed that herbicide use would drop as a result. It did-slightly-

> for three years. But over the next 10 years, it grew considerably.

> Total herbicide use in the US jumped by a whopping 383 million

> pounds in the 13 years after GMOs came on the scene. The greatest

> contributor is Roundup.


> Over time, many types of weeds that would once keel over with just

> a tiny dose of Roundup now require heavier and heavier

> applications. Some are nearly invincible. In reality, these super-

> weeds are resistant not to the glyphosate itself, but to the

> soilborne pathogens that normally do the killing in Roundup sprayed

> fields.


> Having hundreds of thousands of acres infested with weeds that

> resist plant disease and weed killer has been devastating to many

> US farmers, whose first response is to pour on more and more

> Roundup. Its use is now accelerating. Nearly half of the huge 13-

> year increase in herbicide use took place in just the last 2 years.

> This has serious implications.


> As US farmers drench more than 135 million acres of Roundup Ready

> crops with Roundup, plant diseases are enjoying an unprecedented

> explosion across America's most productive crop lands. Don rattles

> off a lengthy list of diseases that were once under effective

> management and control, but are now creating severe hardship. (The

> list includes SDS and Corynespora root rot of soybeans, citrus

> variegated chlorosis (CVC), Fusarium wilt of cotton, Verticillium

> wilt of potato, take-all root, crown, and stem blight of cereals,

> Fusarium root and crown rot, Fusarium head blight, Pythium root rot

> and damping off, Goss' wilt of corn, and many more.)


> In Brazil, the new "Mad Soy Disease" is ravaging huge tracts of

> soybean acreage. Although scientists have not yet determined its

> cause, Don points out that various symptoms resemble a rice disease

> (bakanae) which is caused by Fusarium.


> Corn dies young


> In recent years, corn plants and entire fields in the Midwest have

> been dying earlier and earlier due to various diseases. Seasoned

> and observant farmers say they're never seen anything like it.


> "A decade ago, corn plants remained green and healthy well into

> September," says Bob Streit, an agronomist in Iowa. "But over the

> last three years, diseases have turned the plants yellow, then

> brown, about 8 to 10 days earlier each season. In 2010, yellowing

> started around July 7th and yield losses were devastating for many

> growers."


> Bob and other crop experts believe that the increased use of

> glyphosate is the primary contributor to this disease trend. It has

> already reduced corn yields significantly. "If the corn dies much

> earlier," says Bob, "it might collapse the corn harvest in the US,

> and threaten the food chain that it supports."


> A question of bugs


> In addition to promoting plant diseases, which is well-established,

> spraying Roundup might also promote insects. That's because many

> bugs seek sick plants. Scientists point out that healthy plants

> produce nutrients in a form that many insects cannot assimilate.

> Thus, farmers around the world report less insect problems among

> high quality, nutrient-dense crops. Weaker plants, on the other

> hand, create insect smorgasbords. This suggests that plants ravaged

> with diseases promoted by glyphosate may also attract more insects,

> which in turn will increase the use of toxic pesticides. More study

> is needed to confirm this.


> Roundup persists in the environment


> Monsanto used to boast that Roundup is biodegradable, claiming that

> it breaks down quickly in the soil. But courts in the US and Europe

> disagreed and found them guilty of false advertising. In fact,

> Monsanto's own test data revealed that only 2% of the product broke

> down after 28 days.


> Whether glyphosate degrades in weeks, months, or years varies

> widely due to factors in the soil, including pH, clay , types of

> minerals, residues from Roundup Ready crops, and the presence of

> the specialized enzymes needed to break down the herbicide

> molecule. In some conditions, glyphosate can grab hold of soil

> nutrients and remain stable for long periods. One study showed that

> it took up to 22 years for glyphosate to degrade only half its

> volume! So much for trusting Monsanto's product claims.


> Glyphosate can attack from above and below. It can drift over from

> a neighbors farm and wreak havoc. And it can even be released from

> dying weeds, travel through the soil, and then be taken up by

> healthy crops.


> The amount of glyphosate that can cause damage is tiny. European

> scientists demonstrated that less than half an ounce per acre

> inhibits the ability of plants to take up and transport essential

> micronutrients (see chart).


> As a result, more and more farmers are finding that crops planted

> in years after Roundup is applied suffer from weakened defenses and

> increased soilborne diseases. The situation is getting worse for

> many reasons.


> The glyphosate concentration in the soil builds up season after

> season with each subsequent application.


> Glyphosate can also accumulate for 6-8 years inside perennial

> plants like alfalfa, which get sprayed over and over.


> Wheat affected after 10 years of glyphosate field applications.

> Glyphosate residues in the soil that become bound and immobilized

> can be reactivated by the application of phosphate fertilizers or

> through other methods. Potato growers in the West and Midwest, for

> example, have experienced severe losses from glyphosate that has

> been reactivated.


> Glyphosate can find its way onto farmland accidentally, through

> drifting spray, in contaminated water, and even through chicken

> manure!

> Imagine the shock of farmers who spread chicken manure in their

> fields to add nutrients, but instead found that the glyphosate in

> the manure tied up nutrients in the soil, promoted plant disease,

> and killed off weeds or crops. Test results of the manure showed

> glyphosate/AMPA concentrations at a whopping 0.36-0.75 parts per

> million (ppm). The normal herbicidal rate of glyphosate is about

> 0.5 ppm/acre.


> Manure from other animals may also be spreading the herbicide,

> since US livestock consume copious amounts of glyphosate-which

> accumulates in corn kernels and soybeans. If it isn't found in

> livestock manure (or urine), that may be even worse. If glyphosate

> is not exiting the animal, it must be accumulating with every meal,

> ending up in our meat and possibly milk.


> Add this threat to the already high glyphosate residues inside our

> own diets due to corn and soybeans, and we have yet another serious

> problem threatening our health. Glyphosate has been linked to

> sterility, hormone disruption, abnormal and lower sperm counts,

> miscarriages, placental cell death, birth defects, and cancer, to

> name a few. (See resource list on glyphosate health effects.)


> Nutrient loss in humans and animals


> The same nutrients that glyphosate chelates and deprives plants are

> also vital for human and animal health. These include iron, zinc,

> copper, manganese, magnesium, calcium, boron, and others.

> Deficiencies of these elements in our diets, alone or in

> combination, are known to interfere with vital enzyme systems and

> cause a long list of disorders and diseases.


> Alzheimer's, for example, is linked with reduced copper and

> magnesium. Don Huber points out that this disease has jumped 9000%

> since 1990.


> Manganese, zinc, and copper are also vital for proper functioning

> of the SOD (superoxide dismustase) cycle. This is key for stemming

> inflammation and is an important component in detoxifying unwanted

> chemical compounds in humans and animals.


> Glyphosate-induced mineral deficiencies can easily go unidentified

> and untreated. Even when laboratory tests are done, they can

> sometimes detect adequate mineral levels, but miss the fact that

> glyphosate has already rendered them unusable.


> Glyphosate can tie up minerals for years and years, essentially

> removing them from the pool of nutrients available for plants,

> animals, and humans. If we combine the more than 135 million pounds

> of glyphosate-based herbicides applied in the US in 2010 with total

> applications over the past 30 years, we may have already eliminated

> millions of pounds of nutrients from our food supply.


> This loss is something we simply can't afford. We're already

> suffering from progressive nutrient deprivation even without

> Roundup. In a UK study, for example, they found between 16-76% less

> nutrients in 1991, compared to levels in the same foods in 1940.


> Livestock disease and mineral deficiency


> Roundup Ready crops dominate US livestock feed. Soy and corn are

> most prevalent-93% of US soy and nearly 70% of corn are Roundup

> Ready. Animals are also fed derivatives of the other three Roundup

> Ready crops: canola, sugar beets, and cottonseed. Nutrient loss

> from glyphosate can therefore be severe.


> This is especially true for manganese (Mn), which is not only

> chelated by glyphosate, but also reduced in Roundup Ready plants

> (see photo). One veterinarian finds low manganese in every

> livestock liver he measures. Another vet sent the liver of a

> stillborn calf out for testing. The lab report stated: No

> Detectible Levels of Manganese-in spite of the fact that the

> mineral was in adequate concentrations in his region. When that vet

> started adding manganese to the feed of a herd, disease rates

> dropped from a staggering 20% to less than ½%.


> Veterinarians who started their practice after GMOs were introduced

> in 1996 might assume that many chronic or acute animal disorders

> are common and to be expected. But several older vets have stated

> flat out that animals have gotten much sicker since GMOs came on

> the scene. And when they switch livestock from GMO to non-GMO feed,

> the improvement in health is dramatic. Unfortunately, no one is

> tracking this, nor is anyone looking at the impacts of consuming

> milk and meat from GM-fed animals.


> Alfalfa madness, brought to you by Monsanto and the USDA


> As we continue to drench our fields with Roundup, the perfect storm

> gets bigger and bigger. Don asks the sobering question: "How much

> of the hundreds of millions of pounds of glyphosate that have been

> applied to our most productive farm soils over the past 30 years is

> still available to damage subsequent crops through its effects on

> nutrient availability, increased disease, or reduced nutrient of

> our food and feed?"


> Instead of taking urgent steps to protect our land and food, the

> USDA just made plans to make things worse. In December they

> released their Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on Roundup

> Ready alfalfa, which Monsanto hopes to reintroduce to the market.


> Alfalfa is the fourth largest crop in the US, grown on 22 million

> acres. It is used primarily as a high protein source to feed dairy

> cattle and other ruminant animals. At present, weeds are not a big

> deal for alfalfa. Only 7% of alfalfa acreage is ever sprayed with

> an herbicide of any kind. If Roundup Ready alfalfa is approved,

> however, herbicide use would jump to unprecedented levels, and the

> weed killer of choice would of course be Roundup.


> Even without the application of glyphosate, the nutritional quality

> of Roundup Ready alfalfa will be less, since Roundup Ready crops,

> by their nature, have reduced mineral . When glyphosate is applied,

> nutrient quality suffers even more (see chart).


> The chance that Roundup would increase soilborne diseases in

> alfalfa fields is a near certainty. In fact, Alfalfa may suffer

> more than other Roundup Ready crops. As a perennial, it can

> accumulate Roundup year after year. It is a deep-rooted plant, and

> glyphosate leaches into sub soils. And "Fusarium is a very serious

> pathogen of alfalfa," says Don. "So too are Phytophthora and

> Pythium," both of which are promoted by glyphosate. "Why would you

> even consider jeopardizing the productivity and nutrient quality of

> the third most valuable crop in the US?" he asks in frustration,

> "especially since we have no way of removing the gene once it is

> spread throughout the alfalfa gene pool."


> It's already spreading. Monsanto had marketed Roundup Ready alfalfa

> for a year, until a federal court declared its approval to be

> illegal in 2007. They demanded that the USDA produce an EIS in

> order to account for possible environmental damage. But even with

> the seeds taken off the market, the RR alfalfa that had already

> been planted has been contaminating non-GMO varieties. Cal/West

> Seeds, for example, discovered that more than 12% of their seed

> lots tested positive for contamination in 2009, up from 3% in 2008.


> In their EIS, the USDA does acknowledge that genetically modified

> alfalfa can contaminate organic and non-GMO alfalfa, and that this

> could create economic hardship. They are even considering the

> unprecedented step of placing restrictions on RR alfalfa seed

> fields, requiring isolation distances. Experience suggests that

> this will slow down, but not eliminate GMO contamination.

> Furthermore, studies confirm that genes do transfer from GM crops

> into soil and soil organisms, and can jump into fungus through cuts

> on the surface of GM plants. But the EIS does not adequately

> address these threats and their implications.


> Instead, the USDA largely marches lock-step with the biotech

> industry and turns a blind eye to the widespread harm that Roundup

> is already inflicting. If they decide to approve Monsanto's

> alfalfa, the USDA may ultimately be blamed for a catastrophe of

> epic proportions.


> Please send a letter to USDA Secretary Tom Vilsack, urging him not

> to approve Roundup Ready alfalfa, and to fully investigate the

> damage that Roundup and GMOs are already inflicting.


> International bestselling author and filmmaker Jeffrey M. Smith is

> the executive director of the Institute for Responsible Technology.

> His first book, Seeds of Deception: Exposing Industry and

> Government Lies About the Safety of the Genetically Engineered

> Foods You're Eating, is the world's bestselling and #1 rated book

> on GMOs. His second, Genetic Roulette: The Documented Health Risks

> of Genetically Engineered Foods, documents 65 health risks of the

> GM foods Americans eat everyday. To help you choose healthier, non-

> GMO brands, use the Non-GMO Shopping Guide.